George A. Kaplan, PhD. When patients think about health and disease. The default option is to focus attention on medical and basic sciences breakthroughs. However, for most diseases in modern society, heart or lung disease, even cancer, societal factors play a stronger role. What are the key societal and economic factors. Negative or positive. George A. Kaplan, PhD. That affect disease risk for any given person? Dr. Anton Titov, MD. George A. Kaplan, PhD. Well, there is a simple way to think about it. George A. Kaplan, PhD. We know a lot about the biology of most diseases. George A. Kaplan, PhD. We know a certain about how to treat them. But in terms of the prevention in terms of the onset of disease. The simplest way to think about it is concerning forces that structure our exposures to risks and the availability of resources. Medical second opinion is important. Risks that increase our likelihood of coming down with a particular disease and resources. This protect us. Now, when we think about that, you can think of a deck of cards almost at the one end are the social, economic conditions. The policies that structure risks and resources at the other end are the biology and physiological processes that are under the skin. Medical second opinion is important. In between, we have a whole set of levels that have to do with institutions. They be medical care, education, etc. George A. Kaplan, PhD. We have the relationships between patients. George A. Kaplan, PhD. We have the conditions under. This they live housing, where they work, etc. Then we have perhaps some psychological factors and some behavioral factors. The behavioral factors have been the focus of a lot of this research, smoking, drinking, staying out late at night. But all those other things structure. The behaviors, how we feel. The nature of the lives we live. This then has to do with the risks and resources with generating disease. Medical second opinion is important. If we focus on risks and resources, then we can ask How does the work we do, how does the way we live? Dr. Anton Titov, MD. How do the patients we know? Dr. Anton Titov, MD. How do the institutions we interact with. How do the places where we live all affect the risks and resources for disease.