Latest prostate cancer treatments differ for localized or metastatic prostate cancer. Leading expert discusses prostate cancer treatments pros and cons of radiotherapy and surgery in prostate cancer. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. There are many prostate cancer treatment options today. Could you discuss recent advances in prostate cancer treatment? Maybe there are some prostate cancer methods that have not yet entered the wider clinical practice. New prostate cancer therapy methods that are going to enter clinical practice soon. Dr. Mark Emberton, MD. I think the prostate cancer treatments can be split into two main types. Prostate cancer is curable when the cancer is confined to the prostate. Cure is the approach to localized prostate cancer. We've been talking about in terms of prostate cancer diagnosis. Once prostate cancer has escaped beyond the prostate, then we need to treat the whole body. We call this "systemic cancer treatments”. Because we assume, probably correctly, that the cancer in microscopic form would have spread throughout the body. I will just talk about systemic prostate cancer therapy. So that we can finish that. Then I will talk about localized prostate cancer. So the systemic prostate cancer therapy typically has been with hormones. When I was training, we used to remove the testicles in a man. And that was it. Prostate cancer chemotherapy was given very rarely. Chemotherapy was given to control symptoms towards the end of life. And the big revolution in my working time has been that prostate cancer chemotherapy is now used to prolong life. Recent data shows that if you give chemotherapy much earlier than we thought, you can actually add years of life. Dr. Mark Emberton, MD. There are many new types of prostate cancer hormone treatment available that can be given in tablet and injection form. Before we only had one method. So for patients who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer that has spread beyond the prostate, the future looks very bright indeed. There are lots of new cancer therapy methods. Lots of new therapies are in development. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are immunotherapies that are all going to be added to the current armamentarium of prostate cancer therapy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. So that's advanced prostate cancer that has spread. That's fairly simple, because we have one approach to that prostate cancer. The discussion is really about what is the optimal sequence of cancer therapy. That's the research question, if you like. How these new prostate cancer therapies that are biological work with existing chemical-type prostate cancer therapies.