How does cellular senescence relate to human disease and aging, if we talk about cellular senescence? And is it possible to reverse the cellular senescence? Yes, cellular senescence is one of the hallmarks of aging. And cellular senescence is a state of cells, where the cells are not dividing anymore.They are still in the body, but they lost the capacity to divide normally. Dr. Andrea B. Maier, MD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Our cells have the capacity to divide and replicate. So, there are lots of studies, especially in aging individuals from the age of 30 onwards, showing that these senescence cells are accumulating with chronological age. It means that at the age of 60, 70, or 80, there is a higher number of senescence cells compared to a body which is 30 years of age or 40 years of age. So the accumulation of the number of senescence cells being in a body is higher at higher chronological age. Dr. Andrea B. Maier, MD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Then you might ask yourself, Okay, so what is that? Is that detrimental? Yes, it is. We think that once a cell is in a senescence stage, that senescence cell is influencing the environment negatively because the cell lost the function of replication of doubling itself and asking other cells in the environment for help. So secreting lots of inflammatory cytokines, for example, to say, 'Hey, I'm senescent. You might want to know this, and I need your help. What should I do?' So the senescent cells influence the microenvironment. Other tissues in the surrounding area are negatively affected Inflammation and cellular replication is induced. So doubling happens of neighboring cells, which should not replicate. There is always the risk for atherosclerosis, which is associated with inflammation, or cancer, which is, of course, associated with replication of cells at higher rate. And that's what we were able to show. Not only you have, or people with higher age have, a higher number of senescence cells, but especially the people which age-related diseases. Dr. Andrea B. Maier, MD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. For example, COPD, which is a lung disease, or cardiovascular disease or renal dysfunction. So in kidney disease, these organs had many more senescent cells than age-matched controls. It means individuals have the same chronological age but do not have that disease. So we know that senescent cells might be bad. They might be the cause of age-related diseases. And then, of course, the question is, can we remove senescent cells? That's an entirely new field of research using senolytics. Dr. Andrea B. Maier, MD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. The senescent cells are being driven into a state called apoptosis. So they kill themselves with the idea if that cell kills itself, and it was eaten up by the immune system, now there is a clear tissue. Senescent cells are not there to induce the disease. So it's a clearance of senescence cells. And there are some human trials also ongoing to see and test if the biological age would be lower if you apply senolytics to human beings. My studies have proven that it works to increase the healthspan and the lifespan. So the years without diseases and or the months without diseases in mice increase. It increases the chance of longevity.