Dr. Anton Titov, MD. What advice could you give to the young surgeon who is being trained in perhaps less rigorous and less structured program that is typical for the best academic US residency programs? What can they do to build their skill set and high quality of training? Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos, MD. There is no one piece of advice. Certainly I would start by saying: "Be true to yourself, and what you really want to do." Neurosurgery has a name and an aura. It is just like some other fields. Sometimes you are attracted to neurosurgery because of this aura, you are probably not in the right place. being true to yourself in that is important. The one thing that you can do, no matter where you are, is study anatomy. Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos, MD. Cadaveric specimens exist everywhere. Skulls exist everywhere. learn. It is the knowledge and the love you develop for the field by understanding your subject. In neurosurgery we are blessed with having a very small area of a subject. It is maybe very important, maybe very sensitive area. But nonetheless that one area of the brain and maybe the spinal cord as well, but the brain in particular, where you can study it. Study it. Then know it! for that you don't need a structured program. Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos, MD. You know, many of the viewers will also know about, heard about 10,000 hours of practice required for expertise. It was a few years ago at our Senior Neurosurgical Society meeting that we invited the author of a book [Malcolm Gladwell, book is called "Outliers"] talk to us. He talked about where that 10,000 hours of practice came from and what it really means. It is a simple concept really. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Because it is 10,000 hours of individual independent practice of something you do. Sometimes you are a violinist - playing 10,000 hours of violin by yourself. Sometimes you are a car mechanic - 10,000 hours of doing "car mechanic" on your own. if you are a neurosurgeon, then 10,000 hours of of being with your subject, say, the brain. That does not have to be an alive brain. Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos, MD. That does not have to be a one particular type of tumor. But when you calculate what it takes to practice your craft for 10,000 hours. That is a lot of time. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. It is an investment. I have seen no one who has come out of the lab dissecting, studying the anatomy. Who, #1, has not fallen in love with studying the anatomy and the brain. #2, had not become a better surgeon. i think that is my one piece of advice. Of course it takes a lot of things. it takes studying it. It takes sacrifice. It takes the love for it. But that would be the one thing in training of young surgeon. I would advocate for. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Dr. Theodosopoulos, thank you very much for this very fascinating and detailed discussion about your practice and about your views on the neurosurgical training, practice and teaching. I'm sure that we in the world will continue to hear about your fascinating achievements in clinical training, your work and your teaching of neurosurgery. Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos, MD. Teaching the residents and through the courses that you are doing. Thank you very much! Dr. Philip Theodosopoulos: Thank you, Anton. I'm looking forward to seeing the effect of your work has on this. In spreading all of this in a platform that is very important for all folks in the world to be able to see. Thank you! Advice to young neurosurgeons. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Surgical mentoring. Video interview with leading neurological surgeon. How to train future leaders in surgery? Leading educator speaks.