So perhaps it's a provocative question, but I don't think it is, if a person says, I want to do something today, that might slow my aging process. I'm already exercising, my diet seems to be good, but I want to go further. What kind of interventions already have some data that in humans, what shows the efficacy and acceptable toxicity? So for example, Metformin, rapamycin, Alpha-ketoglutarate, what else is out there?
Yeah, there are a variety of other things that are different stages of development. I think one thing you might consider is there are an increasing number of these longevity clinics that are popping up everywhere and some are moderately expensive. Some are extremely expensive. You have to decide based on your budget, some of them do more radical things, others are more conservative. But one thing a lot of them do is they measure a lot of stuff in your system. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.
So they take blood, they take, still take saliva, take urine. And they really look at all of the different factors that have been linked to aging. So you get this readout of 100 different things. Which indicators are outside the normal range in your body? They look at genetics. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. And even just correcting some of those things that are outside of the normal range, I think would be a really important step that a lot of people that are interested in longevity are not doing. I think if people want to try the AKG, that's great, I'm happy if they do. But knowing your own body, I think is something that's still missing. And even in a lot of these longevity hackers and getting those kinds of measures.
I learned that I was low in vitamin B12. And I went to visit a clinic. And we've also found that taking alpha-ketoglutarate maybe not as effective if you don't have, vitamin B 12 levels high enough. So, that's something that I learned. And I tend to think I know a lot about my body. And so I think that arming yourself with that kind of knowledge is helpful. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. And, again, I think experimenting with some of these safe supplements that are on the market is fine.
Again, I wouldn't take everything, try different things, you can if you're willing to do the biologic age testing, see what the outcome is on your body. And I think it's okay to do that. I think informed people should be able to make their own decisions about what they want to do with their body. The important thing for us is to make sure people get informed about aging. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.
Generally speaking, the public still is not informed about aging. We must educate them so that they can make the best choices for themselves. And that's still a big challenge in the field. Well, I don't think anything is going to work in every individual. That's true for any drug in any disease. So I think that it's important to measure because rapamycin may be extremely effective in you and not effective in me. We don't know.
So any of these interventions. And that's why what I mentioned earlier, with this personalized approach, we need to understand and be able to predict who's going to respond to what interventions. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. But right now, it's such an early stage that we really don't know.
It's 70% or 80% of people respond to rapamycin to get biologically younger, that'd be great. But I'd like to know who those or 30%, that's making them non-responsive. So I don't think we can make the assumption. Even exercise, if I tell everybody to go out, and I think some form of exercise is probably good for everybody. But if I tell everybody to go out and run 20 kilometers in Singapore, I'm gonna, kill some people, right? So I think that we have to tailor the intervention to the to the individual, and that goes with the drugs and supplements as well. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.