We continue to live through a global COVID-19 pandemic. There has been some data that Metformin can enhance anti-viral response. People with diabetes who took Metformin had lower mortality from COVID-19. Same was perhaps true for rapamycin. What is responsible for antiviral effects of Metformin and rapamycin? Is it a true antiviral effect? We have to take all these studies [carefully]. Dr. Steven Austad, PhD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. They were done under emergency circumstances. We have to take them with a grain of salt until they're confirmed and extended. I should also say there's a study of some of these senolytics drugs, at least in mice. And in humans, senolytics also seem to have an antiviral effect. So what I would say is this. Let's hope that the pandemic appears to be waning. And we'll keep our fingers crossed that that will continue. Now is the time to do clinical trials of these drugs in a more leisurely long-term vision. and figure out if this is true. If it's true. It's incredibly important. I did a study with a colleague where we looked at the effect of rapamycin on pneumococcal pneumonia. Dr. Steven Austad, PhD. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. It is the most common infectious disease that kills older people before COVID-19. And it also had a protective effect, at least in mice. So again, it could be by the time the next pandemic comes around, because it will come around. If it's a viral pandemic, we may have worked out some very good treatments and preventive strategies by then. That's at least what I'm hoping.