You are leading clinical trials that identified the specific cancer markers in DCIS, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. It is a breast cancer. This marker may predict breast cancer recurrence. Cancer marker may predict what treatments may or may not be given. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. What can you tell about that research? Dr. Jack Cuzick, PhD. I think this is a very important area of breast cancer research. Because we do know that not all DCIS progress to invasive breast cancer. The first challenge is to determine whether this DCIS has progressive potential to invasive breast cancer. We have to determine if DCIS patient needs additional treatment. Most of DCIS cases can be treated simply by surgery. Dr. Jack Cuzick, PhD. Radiotherapy maybe *not* even required. The first cancer markers we looked at were important for invasive breast cancer. we looked at estrogen receptor positivity, progesterone receptor positivity, HER2 positivity. We also looked at Ki-67 cancer marker as a measure of tumor proliferation index. Those breast tumor markers are potentially quite useful. But it's still early days of research. We are in the process of doing a large clinical trial based on our first DCIS clinical trial. This is 1,700 breast cancer patients. We have blocks of breast cancer biopsy tissue on over a thousand of patients now. So that work is ongoing. The only work that's been completed has been done for the estrogen receptor and for HER2 receptor in breast cancer. Dr. Jack Cuzick, PhD. There is evidence that HER2 is important for predicting response of breast cancer to radiotherapy. That research result is not published yet. But it has been presented at a scientific medical meeting. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. We do believe that estrogen receptors are very important for determining which breast cancer patient needs endocrine therapy.