Mitochondria play a significant role in aging, you've done a lot of research on the role of mitochondria. So how to keep mitochondria young and healthy? I think that we can talk about mitochondria. Let me give you my worldview on these aging pathways first. If you look at the interventions that extend lifespan, mTOR pathway, rapamycin, Metformin, sirtuin activators, I could go on. We're testing a bunch of them in my labs.
And then you might say that, well, about 10 years ago, there were these papers on the hallmarks of aging, another paper on the pillars of aging that I was involved with. And we laid out nine or seven pathways, respectively, that affect the aging process. And you might expect that these interventions affect one of those pathways like mitochondrial function. But when you read it out, it turns out they affect all of the aging pathways. And so I think of these readouts is kind of guideposts. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.
These aging pathways are kind of guideposts in the things that are important for aging. But really, I believe it's a network that maintains health. And all of these pillars, all hallmarks are connected to each other. And so really, it's a systems biology question. Your body is working really hard to keep you healthy in the face of damage and other events that may happen to you as you grow older. And eventually, enough things go wrong, that you can't maintain that homeostasis anymore.
Then things begin to break down and you have a more rapid functional decline and disease onset etc. I really think that these interventions are not targeting one pillar. What they're doing is targeting the network.
So the reason I bring all that up is that probably still the best thing you can do for your mitochondria is exercise. I mean, if you're doing sustainable exercise that involves endurance and a little bit of resistance training, you're definitely helping the metabolism of your muscle, which is a big tissue in your body, and protects you from diabetes and a whole range of other things. Healthy diets, all of these lifestyle changes are worth mentioning, because people can do them today. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.
And they help you live a longer healthier lifespan in doing it. So that's a huge benefit. In terms of mitochondrial health, more specifically, there are a lot of pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and in mitochondrial turnover like mitophagy. And we're trying to understand how those pathways are linked to aging. And certainly, if you can turn over damaged mitochondria and make new ones, then you're certainly better off. That's one of the pathways that drives aging. But I don't know that there are interventions that just specifically target that mitochondria, I think what they do is preserve network function. Dr. Brian Kennedy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD.