Immunotherapy in prostate cancer is a new method. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may help early and late stage prostate cancer. Review and clinical trials of immunotherapy in prostate cancer continue. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Immunotherapy is a hot treatment method in many cancers. For some cancers immunotherapy has changed the game in cancer treatment. Immunotherapy is used now in prostate cancer. You are also doing very sophisticated 3D tumor modeling. You look at tumor and its surrounding microenvironment, which is very important for tumor progression and risk stratification. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. Can you comment on immunotherapy for prostate cancer? Please comment on your work in 3D tumor modeling. Dr. Mark Emberton, MD. What we're all hoping, there will be an important role for immunotherapy in prostate cancer. Immunotherapy tends to work when there is a lot of heterogeneity in a cancer. Immunotherapy works best with a lot of cancer subtypes within the cancer. Melanoma and kidney cancer are the two exemplars where the great successes have been made with immunotherapy. Dr. Anton Titov, MD. More recently some of the childhood cancers have been treated with a biological system, which exploits the immune system to a lesser degree. It means there are some cures there, in children whose disease was resistant to traditional therapies. Dr. Mark Emberton, MD. So in prostate we've seen one immunotherapy method being advocated for late disease. It's a very expensive form of cancer therapy. One can use that form of therapy in America if you have a hundred thousand dollars. Or something approximating that. It has not been authorized in the UK. I think it's been authorized in very few European countries unless you pay out of your own pocket. I think we're looking at a number of immune therapies now directed to the microenvironment of prostate cancer tumor. There are immune checkpoint inhibitors. There is generalized immunization to enhance the overall immune state of the body. The ability to apply these well-tolerated immune interventions in early prostate cancer will allow us to see whether cancer progression occurs. Or if prostate cancer progression does not occur.